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Three of more of the following courses: The course offers an intensive but simplified introduction to the U.

Students learn to identify and utilize a variety of research tools, including online collection provided by LexisNexis as well as traditional print-based methods of legal research. Additionally, students use various types of reference books, proper case citation, cite checking, and the proper method of case reporting, Shepardizing, methods of compiling legislative histories, and administrative legal research.

This course covers the basic principles governing the ethical practice of law for both lawyers and paralegals and provides students with necessary tools for identifying and resolving ethical problems and provides practical tips to implement in everyday practice. Some key concepts such as prior restraint, obscenity, false advertising, and election rules are examined. Students also discuss federal regulation of the media and private remedies that people may have against the media regarding issues such as defamation and copyright infringement.

This course provides students with a fundamental understanding of the concepts and working terminology of real property law and reviews disclosure obligations and regulations affecting brokers, sales people, and owners. Students are introduced to buying, selling, leasing, and investing in real estate. Instruction focuses on the key aspects of drafting trusts for clients and examines the major considerations necessary in preparing trusts, including estate planning, estate tax planning, Medicaid eligibility planning, etc.

Students learn about many different types of trusts, including revocable trusts, irrevocable trusts, life insurance trusts, etc. Many important trust provisions are reviewed and placed into scenarios that could apply to diverse types of clients. This course introduces students to a variety of topics and issues in the area of white collar crime and specifically reviews the debate regarding the definition of white collar crime.

Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to: This course familiarizes students with a practical understanding of the laws of estate planning. Students learn how the federal estate tax system works and what to consider when doing estate planning.

Class discussion focuses on: This course introduces students to the basic principles of algebra. These principles include mathematical expressions such as polynomials, exponentials, and logarithms, and their manipulations. This course introduces students to the basic principles of geometry necessary for further college level mathematics.

These principles include properties of geometric shapes and measurements, calculating the dimensions, including one, two- and three-dimensional properties of geometric figures. Earth Science covers a variety of scientific disciplines that relate to the composition of the Earth, its dynamic nature and its position in space.

Environmental Science covers a variety of issues that relate to the environment and the human impact on the ecosphere. The course examines the various biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to the environment and its health. This course is an introductory study of the life processes of all organisms. Instruction focuses on the life processes of human beings. It begins with some necessary background information about molecular and cellular structure and then moves into the life processes, including: The course examines each of these processes and the human organ systems that carry them out.

This course is a conceptual introduction to the science of data and fundamental concepts of statistics for students. It provides a solid foundation for students planning to pursue more advanced courses in statistics by introducing new concepts with several fun and easy to understand examples.

Many examples are based on real, current business and economics datasets. Calculations are illustrated in Microsoft Excel. This course studies the human diet and looks at substantial elements of biology and chemistry as they relate to this study. National College Credit Recommendation Service. Search Google Appliance Enter the terms you wish to search for. Search for an Organization: Search by Course Title: Phoenix , AZ Compensation and Benefits BUS— Principles of Accounting ACC Principles of Marketing MAR Recruitment and Selection BUS Training and Development BUS Discovery to Reconstruction HIS Laws of Cyberspace PLG Laws of Evidence PLG Ideas in Mathematics MAT Introduction to Sociology SOC English Courses-National Paralegal College.

Law Courses-National Paralegal College. Miscellaneous Courses-National Paralegal College. Various; distance learning format. March — Present. Various, distance learning format. May - Present. August - Present. February — Present. October - Present. July - Present. April - Present. November - Present. January - Present. December - Present. June - Present. September - Present. February - Present. You have an entire industry devoted to dealing with mental disorders, and the vast majority of these disorders seem to be deal with primarily by… talking.

And there have been plenty of studies on the effects of talking, and there seems to generally be some effect but not that much. Is it fear of drugs, especially drugs that effect the mind, that explains the preference? I understand that certain drugs SSRIs, Ritalin may be over prescribed by lazy doctors, but from limited evidence, it seems that psychiatrists are very hesitant about prescribing most psychiatric medication.

One possible reason that biological causes might get ignored is that the experts working on a problem might not think of them.

Not to mention, the people we look towards to solve problems are experts in fields related to the problem and not doctors or medical researchers.

For example, when people were trying to reverse the crime boom, no one thought to suggest that removing lead in gasoline might cause crime to go down because no one made the connection between leaded gasoline and crime until after the effects of banning leaded gasoline were observed. Any biological solution would have to be considered along with their non-biological side effects.

We want to improve education, but we want to maintain the status quo even more. Indirect normativity is supposed to mitigate this problem.

Also I think people are probably seriously underestimating the difficulty of creating AGI utopia. Also I would argue that we should try and improve things in the short term simultaneously as we try and improve things in the long term. AGI Utopia could be great, but getting as close as we can to Utopia in the meantime would be great also. So, try to invent the Friendly AI to bring the Utopia, and simultaneously increase human rationality to allow people fix problems until the AI is ready and also to prepare better AI researchers?

The pattern seems to be: In this case, the punchline depended on verbal irony i. For an alien who knows nothing about drug use, the joke would be missed and the alien would actually believe nobody uses drugs anymore. I will keep an eye out to see if future Scott jokes fall under that label. Good post, however the ADHD lecture was indeed terrible and a horrible insult overall. How anyone can be in a position to lecture and have those two points as the take away is beyond me.

Were the two points of takeaway the two points Scott mentioned? From the post, I thought that those were just two hypotheses of many, and perhaps cause was not even the topic.

And of course everyone massively underestimates the cost of social interventions, both literal expenditure and the horrific pain it inflicts for no good reason. Your comment makes sense only when it refers to a low-frequency allele. I thought of this a while back.

If the feminists of the world had any true strategic thinking, they would be falling all over each other to fund SENS. People tend to prefer solutions which will have some effect in their own lifetimes. Point 2 first — If I have read sens correctly, there will be no issues of appearance because the elasticity of the skin will never be allowed to significantly degrade. If SENS works, it is win-win.

They get a world where intellect is genuinely preferred since all women look 26 years old. They get a world where a lot of people are a lot more serious about saving money and genuine long term effects. The guys who want hot chicks around win because everyone around is physically young.

The girls who want hot men around are happy because everyone around is physical young. The environmentalists are happy because everyone now has to become an environmentalist. Sorry for the sens propaganda Scott.

What I have seen is three things:. The fertility and the looks of women decrease faster than that of men. This makes the process of aging a much greater enemy of the female sex compared to males. Robin Hanson imagines situations where people have children early and go to college after their children are grown up. These societal changes will take too much time and do not resolve the issues more permanently.

Aiming at aging as the common enemy is much more likely to succeed, being a biological intervention. A lot of the societal changes that are sought have a much higher probability of happening if aging is defeated.

My desired age range listed on OkCupid is I have, in fact, had a woman reply to one of my messages with: In context, she appeared to be inquiring rather than straight-up accusing. Which is fine, because someone that extreme on the SJ axis is probably not a good match. When i think the point is that there is no engineering human will.

I think framing society in this way is always doomed to failure. There is the enlightenment idea of human behaviour. That the mind is fundamentally not biological but a thing unto itself.

Eg, why does someone behave a certain way? You can laugh at how deeply unsatisfying this is as an explanation but just look at the massive success of enlightenment philosophy and religion at achieving social change.

What would Nietzsche, Hulme, Smith or Jesus say about these problems? The free will vs. What I would say is that the chief idea of the liberalism is individual autonomy, though I can understand how that would rely on some conception of free will. Most progressive movements stem from the push for greater individual autonomy for the maximum number of people: An institution like slavery which many past and even some present right-wingers defend is an obvious infringement of individual autonomy.

In this regard, demands for liberty and demands for equality are intimately linked. Marxists and anarchists often claim that liberalism is compromised and conceals oppression in a more insidious way than conservatism. Of course, the reality of Marxist states would make Marxism even more compromised from this perspective. Liberalism has a better track record of self-correction and learning from past mistakes.

For the right, the individual is and should be subordinate to forces beyond his control. These forces can take myriad forms: However, the right does not completely reject the importance of the creative will. Take one particular formulation of this: What is this but an expression of the creative will?

But the right differs from the left in that it reserves the powers of the will for the chosen few rather than the greatest number possible. For someone like Schmitt, decisions were made by the sovereign, not the masses.

It seems possible to be a classical liberal who vouches for the right to personal autonomy and still be a determinist. Are you European, by chance? Liberals are strong on collective group-based views, speaking often about outcomes derived from group membership and downplaying the role of individual choice.

Right-wing groups are very strong on the rhetoric of individual choice, and downplay group membership. If they talked about individual autonomy, I would assume they were conservative.

For your purposes, you can think of it as basically meaning libertarian. It seems like the window of legitimate political speech is much wider in Europe than in the states. This is probably what would happen if children lived in hermetically sealed bubble environment, but humans tend to wake up with daylight. I remember that when I was serving out my four year sentence at the local high school, I had to wake up before dawn in order to catch the school bus. Obviously these things are very hard to run as rigorous experiments, but so far the evidence seems to show improvements in various outcomes consistent with students being better rested.

That is a British study. Americans have an additional effect that is easier to measure: From a historical perspective, society is certainly not fixed. Human behaviour has been radically altered both as a result of intentional actions on the part of governments and other influential organizations and as a side-effect of economical development.

This has led to a decrease in violence, increased tolerance, changed sexual norms, you name it. That is rapidly changing, however. Our knowledge of effective social influence is also improving e. So I think that the post is largely right; it is becoming relatively speaking easier to influence behaviour through the biological route, in comparison to the social route. It could be argued that those who fail to see this live in the past, where it was indeed true that the biological route was pretty closed.

It is a false dichotomy. When conservatives promote belief in human nature, though, they refer not merely to health and talents but to our capacities for doing right and wrong, and would thus be cautious about the extent to which people can and will act wisely and justly.

Argumentum ad Hitlerum is applied to determinist arguments with a greater frequency than argumentum ad Stalinum , argumentum ad Maoum and argumentum ad Pol Potum are brandished against arguments related to socialisation but all plans intended to change people and their communities on a significant scale should account for the flaws of planners. Another possibility would be shortening the school day for high schools, but that seems to be unimaginable. It seems to me that some high school schedules are on the early side even for adults.

After graduating high school, I never got up that early again, except briefly in college when I had 8 AM classes and a nasty bus schedule to contend with. High school started earlier, but I lived closer. This is really weird, because in central Europe, school tends to be over in the early after noon, which made it hard for me to understand the comment about children waiting for the bus in the dark.

I was puzzled at first because when I used to leave for school in winter, it was sometimes still dark when I left home. Waiting for the bus in the dark in the early morning before sunrise is what Nancy was referring to. So this is an attempt to charitably explain in plain English what I think is the core of the rightist position. Coming at this from the perspective of a cathedral brahmin, I may be way off, so any neoreactionaries are welcome to correct me, but anyway, here goes:. There are a set of traits that are conducive to building and sustaining an orderly and pleasant civilisation.

Virtue, however, is hard, and that left to their own devices most people will not behave in a virtuous manner. Virtue is determined both by biology and culture; some people are naturally more virtuous than others, but how virtuous people are can also be affected by the social incentives they face. As a society, we want to maximise virtue and therefore we both want to increase the proportion of people who are naturally virtuous, and craft incentive systems that reward virtue and punish vice.

Empirically, the successful societies of the past probably possessed incentive structures well suited to generating virtue. We America come from a society which was successful in the past, so assuming that the traits which are virtuous have stayed the same, then the culture of the our past society is probably good at generating virtue in our current society.

Luckily, we still have had the culture of our past so, absent any attempts to change it, we have nothing to worry about. But, people do keep trying to change it, and they claim that their changes will improve the system. However, we should be automatically suspicious of their changes for three reasons: Most changes to any complex system are bad.

Most changes are suggested by humans; humans are naturally unvirtuous, so we should expect most changes proposed by them to be unvirtuous too. As an extension to 2. Most changes are suggested by leftists, who are optimising towards the decidedly unvirtuous ideal of equality, so any changes suggested by them are extremely likely to be unvirtuous.

In earlier times, the negative effects of most changes were quickly and easily seen: However, the industrial revolution has allowed us to suffer less consequences for our unvirtue than in earlier ages, at least at first; we have built a small buffer against gnon. So, we appear to face a tradeoff. We can do things that make people happy, but make society in general less virtuous: We can implement minimum wages and a welfare state, but we get a large, unproductive, and criminal ghetto class who would otherwise have starved or found work below the minimum wage; we can implement feminism and make women less oppressed, but we get an increasingly dysfunctional SMP, marriage and family formation rates decline, bastardy rates rise, and the incentives for men to produce at their full capacity to provide for women and children are slowly eroded.

Thus, in general, the more we implement leftism, the more our starting stock of virtue is eroded: So, in a sense, we can view leftism as civilisational entropy.

However, leftism is not a tradeoff but a trap. You cannot chose a stable point on the curve: The only way to survive the game is not to start playing. In addition, even if this is not the case, we must look at the opportunity costs of leftism, as they are much larger than most imagine.

The more leftism, the less virtue, the less effective our civilisation is, the slower our economic and technological growth rates, and thus the longer it will take to reach the singularity, if we reach it at all. The opportunity costs of leftism compound enormously over time and are much greater than the immediate consequences, as bad as those may be. So that given the choice between, say, feminism, and having the singularity occur ten years earlier, the utilitarian must choose the singularity, as against ten years in a universe of hedonium, the benefits of feminism pale into insignificance.

So thus, even though we now have the ability to be more leftist than we otherwise could, we still should not do so, as the opportunity costs of leftism are enormous and leftism is intrinsically dangerous anyway. Instead we should keep on maximising virtue and just suck it up till we reach the singularity. This means conserving the remaining virtue-generating aspects of our society, and restoring those that have decayed to their previous forms.

Is there anything major that I have missed? I used to have this problem. Then I met master Jim. He hit me with a stick, and I achieved dark enlightenment. But I see that you mentioned the left singularity in your summary, so presumably you have read James, and found him wanting. If you are looking for a ginormous Scott-like post which summarizes all the basic assumptions of neoreaction and clearly lays out the sequence of inferences which follow from those assumptions, I am afraid you are out of luck.

Do you mean things people claim to want, or things which actually make them happy? Neoreactionaries often argue that feminism and the welfare state make females and the underclass less happy than virtuous to use your terminology society. Belief in the technological singularity is far from being a reactionary consensus.

Techno-commercialists like Land tend to take the idea seriously, but e. Even if the singularity is impossible, the long-term existance of a virtous civilization itself can be a terminal goal, especially if you know that it will be your descendants who inhabit it, and especially when you consider the alternative hunter-gatherer foraging. Utilitarianism, especially of the kind which promotes tiling the universe with hedonium, is also not a particularly popular ideology in neoreaction.

In fact, you are unlikely to see arguments which rely on reasoning that each unit of time without the singularity carries a massive opportunity cost outside of LessWrong. Rather, it is the insight that egalitarianism is bad through and through. Not only is inequality a contingent fact of history, political equality is impossible, and indeed political inequality is desirable. Most people should have no political power. You seem to be on the right track. This is basically the same problem the Left likes to point out with corporations being interested in quarterly revenue rather than sustainability.

Some corporations have a rudimentary patch on the issue by paying leaders in stock shares, whose total value depends on the long-term performance. Such a solution could be backported to rewarding politicians by giving them some kind of government bonds paying off over decades.

Speaking of the civil service, elected politicians often find it convenient to drop off power there for another reason: Corollary to the corollary: This does not appear to be the case. The FDA seems to have authority here, as suggested by Scott writing this letter to the FDA rather than writing his elected representative, let alone voting for a particular candidate in his elections.

Again, I approve in principle. So who has responsibility? In case 2, it seems hard to notice this happening. And what is the role of elected politicians in all this? So, getting to the neoreactionary complaint-bundle, it goes something like this: You made false promises. You lied about who has power and makes decisions, lied about who to blame, and lied about how to fix it.

You also lied about how to get good results. Others include ancap private security agencies, bitcoin-blockchain-like contracts, theocracy, or outright being honest about what a democracy is and how it works, perhaps with a few changes such as e. Scott, could you send my email to Fazathra? I found myself unconsciously nodding along as I read. The way replies to deleted comments are shown unthreaded below everything else is very confusing. I enjoy emoticons, the old fashioned kind with just a colon and a parenthesis.

Whenever I type one here in a comment, it gets replaced by one of these terrible yellow things: Is there a way for to make it not autocorrect? You can do it like this: Your examples of changing biology remind me a bit of a story Lansburg made up about a girl saving starfish on a beach. In his example it was about charity but it fits here too.

What happens when the next contrarian comes along and tells her the same thing? Does she reject the question when she meets the second contrarian? She can save another, or go home. The question is rejected because it assumes her point was something other than it was. I saw it on a motivational poster in middle school. Rule Number One is that young men die in wars. And so I tend to regard with scepticism the notion that say the problem of drug abuse can be solved by decriminalising drugs soft drugs like marijuana or weed or whatever the cool kids are calling it now usually.

Ireland has an alcohol problem, there is no doubt of that. Who will suffer through this social liberalisation? Yay, equality, progress, liberalisation, right? Social welfare programmes get slashed so we can keep giving tax breaks to multi-nationals. The deciding factor, to my view, is money: Well, to hell with them!

Our current Minister for Education is very big on this. Know what we really need, for a start, in Irish primary and secondary schools? A school psychological service. If it is serious, we call their parents or some other caretaker to take them out of school so they can be brought to the doctor.

We get kids coming in at age 12 who need to be assessed. A lot of our pupils come with behavioural and learning difficulties. I think Scott would agree that a child with needs should be getting some kind of support long before the age of twelve.

Our reforming Minister for Education will quite happily take on the bishops, but when it comes to taking on his cabinet colleagues and looking for extra money for such vital supports, no way. No rocking the boat there! Here you are, on the Internet, even as people suffer from Internet addiction. Yet this is widely regarded as a bad idea. But even that seems like a simplification. Thanks for proving my point for me: Almost all of the harms that illegal drugs cause among poor communities is either a consequence of them being illegal, or a consequence of the brutal enforcement attempts carried out to save people from themselves.

The devastation is has caused is hard to underestimate, yet in the push to end it, we have people like you talking about how it is our social duty to save addicts from themselves, and if that means throwing them into a concrete rape-box for 10 years and destroying their lives and family and most of their community, then so be it. No more no-knock raids with SWAT gear; no more stop-and-frisk or exempt small amounts of drugs but not weapons from frisk charges; etc.

For marijuana; obviously not a good idea for methamphetamine or alcohol Legalize grow-your-own and share-for-free, but not commercial sale. I believe this was actually the preferred approach of Mark Kleiman, who is the adviser to some of the states that have legalized marijuana. Homebrew beer is fairly safe. Distilling your own moonshine is somewhat riskier. Your last paragraph, especially, seems to reflect what the U.

I think government is bad at changing society to improve upon democratic liberalism. But although government is perhaps ineffective there, other actors have power they can exert on society.

Society changes from the bottom up, not top down; this is different than not changing at all. I have always been interested in non governmental associations for collective action, I think they might have a lot of useful potential. The comments below this one as of this writing were originally replies to a different comment that has since been deleted. The comment system here puts non-deleted replies to deleted comments at the bottom of the thread, below all other comments regardless of when they were posted.

Taking the idea in this post as a given, does anyone have any suggestions as to where to push in response? IE, what companies or nonprofits out there are working on these sorts of interventions, or what business opportunities exist to sell these interventions profitably?

This is not super related to this post, but if I get the opportunity to push someone into a socially useful scientific career, I suggest genetic engineering, particularly whichever subfield of it allows you to create strands of DNA on demand and inject them into eggs to create custom organisms.

Like these people , but with more followthrough. Your reply is somewhat more related than you might expect. Turns out doing research, especially benchwork research, makes me rather severely depressed. This seems to be mostly the rate of success of.

Furthermore, religiously-motivated conservatives are going to be ferociously opposed to something like that…. She manifested symptoms all the way back to infancy. So that rules out the spiritual desert of adolesence. Last I heard he was doing a prison stretch. Out of curiousity, how exactly does one assess an infant for ADHD?

Mainly she was very alert to her surroundings, eyes wide-open, constantly examining everything going on around her, all at a very young age, 4 months or less. Once she was walking 10 months it was nonstop action, to the point of risk. Two years later, when she got to first grade, she got crosswise with her teacher and a referral was done again and the workup repeated, and the diagnosis was reconfirmed. The school district wanted to be sure.

And now at age 13 still is. I think the reason that social explanations are preferred is that biological explanations require one to actually know things. In contrast, very few people have the time to research how biology affects behavior and formulate effective policy proposals. One overlooked mechanism, is that manipulating society, is a social phenomena. How do you prevent people from giving their kids bad names?

If you make it illegal, people must now get government approval to name their kids. If you advertise, you are telling those kids who already have or get bad names that their parents failed them. Can you know what effects this will have? Even when these interact with your improvements?

We also have set up the social infrastructure to mandate more biological changes easily. Product safety and environmental laws were major social changes.

BTW, have your object-level recommendations about supplementation changed much since your Quantified Health Prize entry? BMI is inversely related to suicide. Bariatric surgery increases the risk of suicide. There are probably other nutrient absorption issues as well. Have you heard of the contraceptive Vasagel being developed by the Parsemus Foundatation? It works like a vasectomy, except it should be easily reversible and is inexpensive.

Your dream of universal birth control may be closer than you realize. Altruisto is a browser extension so that when you shop online, a portion of the money you pay goes to effective charities no extra cost to you. Just install an extension and when you buy something, people in poverty will get medicines, bed nets, or financial aid. It was alleged that the nurse midwife inappropriately administered medication to a woman in labor despite signs that her fetus was in distress.

It was also alleged that the nurse midwife failed to timely recommend delivery by cesarean section. The fetus suffered from oxygen deprivation and was born with cerebral palsy. The nurse midwife was dismissed from the case after Mr.

Belfie recently successfully defended a property owner in Philadelphia. It was alleged that the owner of the property failed to clear snow and ice from a parking area in front of the property.

Belfie proved that the property owner had hired a company to remove snow and ice from the area where the Plaintiff had fallen. Belfie also proved that the property owner took reasonable steps to clear the area from snow and ice. Belfie was successful on his Motion for Summary Judgment and the case was dismissed against the property owner.

Brady joined the firm in December She focuses her practice on civil litigation, primarily legal malpractice defense. During law school, Ms. Kathryn is licensed to practice in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. She is a member of the Pennsylvania and Montgomery Bar Associations. Castagna joined the firm in She focuses her practice on professional malpractice litigation. Kristy has specialized knowledge in the representation of insurance agencies, insurance agents and insurance brokers.

She also defends physicians, nurses, hospitals, health care systems, lawyers and law firms in professional malpractice claims. Other areas of her practice include commercial, auto and general liability as well as criminal defense and appellate practice.

Kristy also spends a significant amount of time volunteering with the Montgomery County Child Advocacy Program where she represents child victims in criminal proceedings, dependency adjudications and protection from abuse petitions. Kristy graduated with honors from Gwynedd-Mercy College in with a degree in Biology and a minor in Chemistry. Before coming to the firm, she worked as an Assistant Public Defender in Berks County from to During her time as an Assistant Public Defender, she defended hundreds of clients in hearings and trials.

She was also involved in numerous appeals to the Superior and Supreme Court. She is an active member of the Pennsylvania and Montgomery Bar Associations. Kristy successfully presented multiple arguments which the Court found meritorious in deciding to enter judgment as a matter of law in favor of her insurance agency clients.

After a five-year dispute, Kristy secured the win for her clients by arguing plaintiff failed to file the complaint within the Statute of Limitations and failed to adduce a genuine issue of material fact regarding the claims for negligence, negligent misrepresentation and breach of a fiduciary duty. She also advanced arguments regarding the lack of damages and the Doctrine of Champerty which the court found persuasive. July, - Kristy successfully resolved a lawsuit filed against Greyhound Lines, Inc.

Through her investigation of the claim, she uncovered photographs and video of the plaintiff which negated the claims of permanent injury, and also discovered admissions from the plaintiff which demonstrated he was working as an electrician during the entire period he was claiming total disability from the automobile accident.

September, - Kristy secured the dismissal of a Complaint filed by a tenant against a law firm representing a condominium association in Delaware County. The Complaint contained allegations related to legal malpractice as well as other intentional torts. Kristy successfully argued that the Complaint was improper under Pennsylvania Rule of Civil Procedure She was able to secure the dismissal after only a short involvement in the case.

August, - Kristy successfully resolved a lawsuit alleging professional malpractice filed against a law firm in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania for a very small percentage of the damages demanded. Kristy uncovered evidence that plaintiffs had failed to report the existence of their personal injury claim in a bankruptcy proceeding which operated to limit the damages in the case to the amount of outstanding creditor claims.

The case quickly settled for a compromised amount following the discovery of the damaging evidence. July, - Kristy was recently able to successfully secure the dismissal of a complaint filed against a physician in Philadelphia in the early stages of litigation. The complaint contained allegations of medical malpractice related to a hip replacement surgery.

Kristy successfully argued venue was not proper in Philadelphia and the Court ordered the case to be transferred to Montgomery County. March, - Kristy successfully defended Greyhound Lines, Inc. Six bus passengers sued the bus company alleging that as a result of the accident, they suffered serious injuries. A judgment was entered in favor of the Greyhound Lines, Inc. Christina Gallagher focuses her practice on civil litigation defense, representing professionals and corporations.

Before joining Kane Pugh as an attorney, Christina worked for the firm as a law clerk. Christina brings her investigative journalism background to Kane Pugh. Before attending law school, Christina worked as a reporter for the Associated Press and covered the Jerry Sandusky child sex abuse scandal. Christina graduated with distinction from Penn State, earning a B. In , Christina won the first annual Pennsylvanians for Modern Courts essay contest for a piece she wrote about the relationship between the media and Pennsylvania court system.

Jessica Keough focuses her practice on legal malpractice and general liability defense. After receiving her BA in English from New York University in , Jessica owned and operated a restaurant and bar in Berwyn where she confronted a variety of legal matters that prompted her to go to law school. After graduating from law school, Jessica clerked for the Honorable Patricia H.

Jenkins and the Honorable Susan Peikes Gantman, President Judge, in the Superior Court of Pennsylvania, where she honed valuable analytical research and writing skills while drafting memoranda and precedential opinions and attending oral arguments.

Jessica lives in Downingtown with her husband and two children. Gina joined the firm in January and is focusing her practice on medical malpractice and general liability defense.

Prior to joining the firm, Gina worked as an associate attorney for a boutique personal injury law firm in Montgomery County. Gina earned her law degree from Thomas M. Cooley School of Law in , graduating cum laude. During her time at Cooley, was actively involved in Moot Court, participated in competitions and was a member of the moot Court Executive Board. During law school, Gina was a judicial extern for the Honorable James J.

She is licensed to practice in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the U. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Amy Kirkpatrick joined the firm in September, She focuses her practice on general liability defense. Amy graduated summa cum laude from Temple University, where she was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa and a Presidential Scholar, with a degree in criminal justice in Amy received an LL.

Amy is admitted to practice in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Kathleen Klemm joined the firm in March She focuses her practice on general liability defense and medical malpractice defense. In , she received her Master of Science in Experimental Psychology with a concentration in Neuropsychology. Prior to earning her law degree, Kate worked in stroke and brain injury research for several years.

An evening division student, Kate maintained fulltime employment while attending law school. Prior to joining the firm, Kate was an associate at a boutique medical malpractice law firm in Philadelphia. She also volunteers with the Montgomery Child Advocacy Project, providing legal representation to children who are the victims of abuse and neglect in the county. He has practiced with the firm since His areas of particular concentration include medical and dental malpractice, hospital defense, municipal defense, employment discrimination, and civil rights defense.

He has defended numerous municipalities in southeast Pennsylvania in trials of civil rights and discrimination matters involving police, labor, and zoning issues. His twelve-year tenure as a civil service commissioner for Lower Merion Township involved extensive interaction with police and municipal officials and presiding over civil service hearings.

He has delivered seminars to physicians on medical malpractice avoidance and to municipal officials on municipal immunity defenses. Defense verdict for an ENT in a medical malpractice case involving allegations of permanent hemiparesis resulting from a delayed emergence from anesthesia following a routine tonsillectomy. Early dismissals and successful resolution for a prominent cardiologist in over twenty cases involving similar allegations of unnecessary coronary artery stenting.

Knoell obtained defense jury verdicts and defense binding arbitration awards in anesthesia, GI and hospital defense cases, as well as several municipal defense cases.

For over 25 years, Andrew has provided outside counsel to Parx Casino and Racetrack. He also has defended various venues and organizations including: Andrew has taken over one hundred cases to jury verdict with overwhelmingly favorable results in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties and the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

He has frequently argued in front of the Pennsylvania Superior Court. Andrew serves as a volunteer attorney for the Montgomery Child Advocacy Project MCAP where he represents, on a pro bono basis, abused and neglected children. He is currently serving as a board member for Racing to Register, a nonprofit corporation, which sponsors individual registrations for the National Bone Marrow Registry.

Andy as an athlete has completed in national Master swimming events, triathlons and numerous races including the Marine Corp. Andy Kramer achieves defense verdicts in three recent cases. In the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Andy Kramer obtained a defense verdict in an employment case.

The plaintiff claimed that she was terminated from her position as a result of her pregnancy. The plaintiff testified that her manager confronted her when he found out that she was pregnant, telling her that she was unable to perform the job as a result of her physical condition and terminated her employment. The jury found in favor of the employer. In Bucks County, Mr. Kramer defended a motorist who hit the rear of the vehicle in which the plaintiff was riding as a passenger.

The plaintiff alleged that as a result of the accident she suffered a rare neurologic disorder in her arm which caused her ongoing permanent and significant injuries. The jury agreed with Mr. Kramer and found in favor of his client. Andy has been representing lawyers, hospitals, physicians, nurses, and physical therapists in professional liability cases since joining the firm in He also represents individuals and businesses of all sizes against general liability cases including premises liability, private passenger and commercial motor vehicle, and breach of contract suits.

He handles all aspects of litigation from initiation through trial and appeals in state and federal court. He also advises and assists clients facing pre-litigation claims and when responding to subpoenas.

Andy is admitted to practice in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He is a member of the Pennsylvania and Montgomery Bar Associations. Through the Montgomery Child Advocacy Project, Andy has the privilege of protecting the rights of abused and neglected children on a pro bono basis. Continuing a three-generation legacy, Andy attended the Pennsylvania State University earning a political science degree.

He then strayed from his lineage of doctors and nurses by attending law school at Villanova University. Andy married his wife Katie in June , at what some have called the greatest wedding ever.

They now live in Conshohocken with their dog Ella. Andy is an avid golfer and fan of all sports. In June , Andy obtained the dismissal of a legal malpractice complaint in Bucks County via preliminary objections. In June , Andy attained the dismissal of his client in a Philadelphia medical malpractice suit. Through pleadings and discovery, he proved his client provided only managerial services at a medical clinic and did not provide any of the allegedly negligent medical care.


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